2020年 7月号 D項


2020年 7月号 D項

Debate: Topic and Outline


3. Liberal “Political Movement” & ” The Politics of Recognition”
The United States, which lacked a feudal system, also had the following problems that were full of contradictions.
• Slavery and Racism
• Gender discrimination
• Coexistence with immigrant ethnic groups
• Military intervention abroad
In the 1960s, these problems burst out.

3.1 A combination of the following two movements overlapped the beginning of “politics of movement”

1963: the Civil Rights Movement During the Kennedy Administration
The administration’s submission of a civil rights bill was the starting point, and it grew into a big swell with the speech “I have a dream” by Luther King, Jr.
1964: Under the Johnson administration, which succeeded John F. Kennedy (who was assassinated), the civil rights bill was passed. The bill banned racial discrimination in public places.

The Anti-Vietnam War Movement
Since 1964, rallies were held at universities all across the United States to call out against the Vietnam War. Furthermore, many students refused to enlist. The movement became increasingly radical and violent, and in 1970, four students were finally shot dead by the National Guard on the Ohio University campus.

These two movements were intertwined with each other. In particular, the civil rights movement succeeded in developing it into a social movement, resulting in a boost to the social movement that followed.

③ The Feminist Movement
In 1966, Betty Friedan was elected as the president of “National Organization for Women” (NOW), and the reforms in the Democratic Party also progressed. From the election in 1972, a minority (female, youth) system was assigned to delegates, and it was applied from the election of the same year. As a result, the number of women delegates went from 13 percent of the total in 1968 to 40 percent in 1972.
In 1974, Rachel Carson, a conservationist, published her book “Silent Spring “, which attracted worldwide attention.
In addition, as the advocate of the consumer rights movement, Ralph Nader won the lawsuit against with General Motors (GM) for its exhaust gas issues. These highly educated leaders, like Ralph Nader, were called “New Politics.”

3.2 “The Politics of Approval”
The Democratic Party has gained credibility as a party to the civil rights movement. To date, more than 90% of African Americans support the Democratic Party. For this reason, the Democratic Party has gained familiarity and support for minorities other than black people.

Moreover, 70% of the Jews, with a high percentage of wealthy people, are rather similar to the Republican policy in terms of economic interests, but are attracted to the Democratic Party. This is because of their faith in Roosevelt, who stopped the Nazi Holocaust with his participation in the Great War, also has gained the trust of the Jews as the “party of ideas” for humanity.

(written by Chiba and Translated by Li Luan.)